Importance The analysis of non-tariff measures for foreign trade regulation implies application of classifications developed over the last decades by international economic organizations and independent researchers. The article deals with the evolution of different approaches to non-tariff measures classification from the middle of the 20th century to the present day. Objectives The study aims to review different approaches to non-tariff measures classification. Methods We investigate approaches to non-tariff measures classification and perform their historical and qualitative analysis. Results The analysis shows that researchers and international organizations have developed several classifications over recent 30 years. However, all of them either solved specific problems or became irrelevant due to expansion of non-tariff measures. This required joint efforts of the UN, WTO, UNCTAD and other organizations to develop a universal classification. Conclusions At present, the UNCTAD classification developed in 2008 is considered to be the most comprehensive and widely used one. Though it covers approximately 180 non-tariff measures, the classification process remains unfinished.
Keywords: non-tariff measures, classification, UNCTAD, World Trade Organization
Anisimov A.M., Vinokurov E.Yu., Demidenko M.V. et al. Otsenka vliyaniya netarifnykh bar'erov v EAES: rezul'taty oprosov predpriyatii [Assessing the impact of non-tariff barriers in the EEU: Results of enterprise surveys]. St. Petersburg, EDB Centre for Integration Studies Publ., 2015, 96 p.
Tucci A., Loridan M. Navigating Non-Tariff Measures: Insights from a Business Survey in the European Union. Geneva, ITC/EC, 2016, 53 p.
Bora B., Kuwahara A., Laird S. Quantification of Non-Tariff Measures. Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities, Study Series No. 18. New York and Geneva, UN, 2002, 47 p.
Basu S.R., Kuwahara H., Dumesnil F. Evolution of Non-Tariff Measures: Emerging Cases from Selected Developing Countries. Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities, Study Series, no. 52. New York and Geneva, UN, 2012, 39 p.
Deardorff A.V. Why Do Governments Prefer Nontariff Barriers? In: Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy. Elsevier B.V., 1987, vol. 26, pp. 191–216. URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2231(87)90026-1
Bhagwati J.N. On the Equivalence of Tariffs and Quotas. In: Trade, Growth, and the Balance of Payments: Essays in Honor of Gottfried Haberler. Chicago, 1965.
Bhagwati J.N. More on the Equivalence of Tariffs and Quotas. The American Economic Review, 1968, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 142–146.
Baldwin R.E. Nontariff Distortions of International Trade. Brookings Institution, 1970, 320 p.
Donnelly W.A., Manifold D. A Compilation of Reported Non-Tariff Measures: Description of the Information. International Trade Commission, Office of Economics Working Paper, 2005, no. 2005-05-A, 19 p.
Svinukhov V.G., Shcherbina G.P. [Classification of Non-tariff Measures for Russian Foreign Trade Regulation]. Pravo i ekonomika = Law and Economics, 2001, no. 8, pp. 28–31, no. 9, pp. 48–51. (In Russ.)
Laird S., Vossenaar R. Porqué nos preocupan las bareras no arancelarias? Informacion Comercial Española, 1991, Special Issue on Non-tariff Barriers, November, pp. 31–54.