Importance The article deals with the analysis of the contemporary status of the economic category Finance in Russia. Objectives The article seeks to disclose the internal content of the category in relation to the current level of development of the national economy. Methods For the study, we used the dialectic method of examining objective economic laws, patterns and phenomena in their constant development and interrelationships, and the systems approach, as well. Results We present our own concept of the economic category, the essential functions of finance, financial system of the State and its structural elements. We formulate the objectives and framework of financial policy and public financial management system at various levels, and propose a methodological approach to the study of financial management as an independent scientific discipline. Conclusions We conclude about the need for an equable approach to the theoretical aspect of the category Finance both in the economic theory and practice.