Importance The article reviews the development prospects for the Russian fuel and energy complex, main trends in the global energy, and the key factors influenced the course of events, makes a comparative analysis of the latest long-term forecasts of the evolution of global energy consumption, considering the introduction of cutting-edge technologies. Objectives The purpose of the study is to formulate priorities for the Russian fuel and energy sector based on the natural, climatic and economic peculiarities of the country. Methods We employ methods of economic and statistical analysis, expert evaluation, as well as analytical methods for collecting and processing information. Results A vital problem of the Russian energy sector is a low incentive for the renewable energy and alternative hydrocarbon fuel technologies development. In the long term, is fraught with technological backlog and imbalance in the energy system. Relatively low levels of industry diversification, efficiency and environmental compatibility of generation, transportation, storage and consumption of energy reduce the economic attractiveness and competitiveness of the entire energy system in the upcoming digital low-carbon economy. Conclusions Efforts should be focused on the following areas: reducing the energy intensity of GDP and increasing the energy and economic efficiency of the energy sector; deepening the diversification of the country's fuel and energy balance; increasing the share of highly refined oil and petroleum products in the structure of exports; developing a network of LNG plants; intensive financing of R&D in the field of alternative energy with an emphasis on bioenergy, wind and fusion energy.
Keywords: fuel and energy complex, Industry 4.0, Fourth Industrial Revolution, energy, future
Smith A. Issledovanie o prirode i prichinakh bogatstva narodov [An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations]. Moscow, EKSMO Publ., 2007, 956 p.
Overton M. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1850. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 272 p.
Thirsk J. The Agrarian History of England and Wales. Volume 6. 1750–1850. Cambridge University Press, 1989, 1248 p.
Ricardo D. Nachala politicheskoi ekonomii i nalogovogo oblozheniya [On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation]. Moscow, EKSMO Publ., 2007, 953 p.
Geddes P. Cities in Evolution: An Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics. London, Williams & Norgate, 1915, 446 p.
Landes D. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge, New York, Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1969, 590 p.
Marshall A. Osnovy ekonomicheskoi nauki [Principles of Economics]. Moscow, EKSMO Publ., 2007, 830 p.
Rifkin J. The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, 304 p.
Schwab K. The Fourth Industrial Revolution. Crown Business, 2017, 192 p.
Galloway R.L. A History of Coal Mining in Great Britain. General Books LLC, 2012, 76 p.
Griffin A.R. The British Coalmining Industry: Retrospect and Prospect. Moorland Publishing, 1976, 208 p.
Mitchell B.R. Economic Development of the British Coal Industry, 1800–1914. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1984, 381 p.
Yergin D. Dobycha. Vsemirnaya istoriya bor'by za neft', den'gi i vlast' [The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power]. Moscow, Al'pina Pablisher Publ., 2013, 943 p.
Parra F. Oil Politics: A Modern History of Petroleum. London, I.B. Tauris, 2004, 352 p.
L'vov D.S. Ekonomika razvitiya [Economics of development]. Moscow, Ekzamen Publ., 2002, 511 p.
L'vov D.S. Rossiya v globaliziruyushchemsya mire [Russia in the globalizing world]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2004, 739 p.
Moiseev N.N. Sud'ba tsivilizatsii. Put' razuma [The fate of civilization. The way of the mind]. Moscow, IIUEPS Academy Publ., 1998, 223 p.
Erznkyan B.A. [Ecological Imperative: Utopia or Necessity]. Montenegrin Journal of Ecology, 2014, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 17–24. (In Russ.)
Lu Xi, McElroy M.B., Kiviluoma J. Global Potential for Wind-Generated Electricity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2009, vol. 106, iss. 27, pp. 10933–10938. URL: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0904101106
Fedorenchik A.S. et al. Biotoplivo iz drevesnogo syr'ya: monografiya [Biofuel from raw wood: a monograph]. Moscow, Moscow State Forest University Publ., 2010, 384 p.