Importance The article considers human capital being one of the most important economic categories. Objectives The aim is to review the evolution of institutional conditions, in which processes of human capital formation and development take place, including its structural transformations. Methods In the study, I apply scientific approaches and methods, like retrospective historical analysis, institutional analysis, quantitative and qualitative sociological methods, statistical data processing. The results of integrated economic and sociological surveys of forest regions of the Republic of Karelia, statistical data serve as the empirical base of the research. Results Using the institutional analysis of the evolution of human capital institutions formation in the Republic of Karelia over 70 years, the paper unveils three historical periods (early Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet). Each of them has its own specific economic and social processes. The condition of institutions that facilitate or hamper the human capital development is assessed through the public policy, behavior patterns of the business and the population. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of human capital serve as indicators of socio-economic systems. It is crucial to focus the State policy on creation of innovative institutions to form, develop, and reproduce the human capital; the institutions will enable to initiate the process of depressed forest regions' recovery.
Keywords: forest raw materials, depressed region, human capital institution, forest village, migration
Rimashevskaya N.M. Uroven' i kachestvo zhizni naseleniya Rossii. V kn.: Demograficheskaya politika: regional'nyi aspekt [The level and quality of life of the population of Russia. In: Demographic policy: a regional dimension]. Moscow, ISESP RAS Publ., 1995, pp. 8–44.
Biliktueva G.D. [The improvement of the quality of the men's capital resources governance in the system of local education]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser.: Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie nauki = Bulletin of the Novosibirsk State University. Series: Socio-Economic Sciences, 2009, vol. 9, iss. 1, pp. 121–127. (In Russ.)
Becker G.S. Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. New York, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975.
Goldin C.D., Katz L.F. The Race between Education and Technology. Harvard University Press, 2008, 488 p.
Schultz T.W. The Economic Value of Education. New York, Columbia University Press, 1963, 92 p.
Kapelyushnikov R.I., Luk'yanova A.L. Transformatsiya chelovecheskogo kapitala v rossiiskom obshchestve (na baze Rossiiskogo monitoringa ekonomicheskogo polozheniya i zdorov'ya naseleniya) [Transformation of human capital in the Russian society (based on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - HSE)]. Moscow, Fond Liberal'naya missiya Publ., 2010, 196 p.
Abalkin L.I. Strategicheskii otvet Rossii na vyzovy novogo veka [Russia's strategic response to the challenges of the new century]. Moscow, Ekzamen Publ., 2004, 605 p.
Rimashevskaya N.M. [The human potential of Russia and problems of population retention]. Rossiiskii ekonomicheskii zhurnal = Russian Economic Journal, 2004, no. 9-10, pp. 22–40. (In Russ.)
Shabunova A.A., Leonidova G.V. [Human capital is an indicator of sustainable development of the territory]. Ekonomicheskie i sotsial'nye peremeny: fakty, tendentsii, prognoz = Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast, 2011, no. 5, pp. 101–115. (In Russ.)
Ustinova K.A., Gubanova E.S., Leonidova G.V. Chelovecheskii kapital v innovatsionnoi ekonomike [Human Capital in the Innovation Economy]. Vologda, ISEDT RAS Publ., 2015, 195 p.
Gurban I.A. [Russia's human capital: Regional differentiation]. Fundamental'nye issledovaniya = Fundamental Research, 2014, no. 5, pp. 1063–1069. (In Russ.)
Kolosov A.E. [Human capital as the main resource of enterprise innovative activity]. Kreativnaya ekonomika = Journal of Creative Economy, 2012, no. 6, pp. 98–105. (In Russ.)
Popova I.V. [State employment policy in the European North in the 1960–1970s]. Izvestiya Rossiiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. A.I. Gertsena = IZVESTIA: Herzen University Journal of Humanities and Sciences, 2011, no. 127, pp. 62–67. (In Russ.)
Pokrovskaya I.P. Naselenie Karelii [The population of Karelia]. Petrozavodsk, Kareliya Publ., 1978, 172 p.
Klement'ev E.I., Kozhanov A.A. Sel'skaya sreda i naselenie Karelii. 1945–1960 gg. Istoriko-sotsiologicheskie ocherki [Rural environment and population of Karelia. 1945–1960. Historical and sociological essays]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1988, 212 p.
Kozhanov A.A. Izmeneniya v etnicheskom sostave sel'skogo naseleniya Karel'skoi ASSR v poslevoennyi period (1949–1958). V kn.: Etnokul'turnye protsessy v Karelii [Changes in the ethnic composition of rural population of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the post-war period (1949–1958). In: Ethnic and cultural processes in Karelia]. Petrozavodsk, Tipografiya im. Anokhina Publ., 1986, pp. 7–9.
Zaslavskaya T.I. [Socio-structural aspect of the transformation of Russian society]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya = Sociological Studies, 2001, no. 8, pp. 3–11. (In Russ.)
Rimashevskaya N.M. [Social vector of Russia's development]. Narodonaselenie = Population, 2004, no. 1, pp. 10–22. (In Russ.)
Kulagin O.I. [Forest enterprise as a subject of the Northern region's economy in the 1990s (based on materials of the Republic of Karelia]. Sever i rynok: formirovanie ekonomicheskogo poryadka = North and Market: Forming the Economic Order, 2016, no. 2, pp. 84–93. (In Russ.)
Morozova T.V., Gurova S.A., Kozyreva G.B. Sel'skie soobshchestva Karelii: traditsii, sovremennost', perspektivy [Rural communities of Karelia: Traditions, modern times, prospects]. Petrozavodsk, Karelian Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 2004, 252 p.
Kulagin O.I. [The Problems of Functioning of the Institute of Social and Professional Adaptation of Timber Industry Workers in Karelia (1945–1955)]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya = Science Journal of VolSU. History. Area Studies. International Relations, 2017, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 109–118. URL: Link (In Russ.)
Kozyreva G.B. [Economic Behavior of Wood Sector Enterprises of Karelia Republic under Conditions of Market Transformations]. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2007, no. 7, pp. 136–151. (In Russ.)