Importance This article considers the possibility of solving the issue by developing nuclear energy as an alternative source of electricity generation, which is characterized by high environmental efficiency. Objectives We conduct our own comprehensive study into nuclear energy use to solve the global climate change problem, assess nuclear energy risks through a retrospective analysis of the industry development. Methods The research involves methods of comparative analysis and an integrated survey of the research area. Results Nuclear energy has no effect on the carbon balance, which is proved by the results of a comparative analysis of various electricity generation characteristics. Nuclear energy risks were found to be artificially overestimated. Conclusions and Relevance If thoroughly designed and properly operated by high professionals, nuclear power plants are a safe source of energy, which is capable of ensuring high electricity supply, thus substantially reducing the environmental footprint. Whereas electric power plants almost do not exhaust greenhouse gas, they are able to reshape the global environmental landscape.
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