Subject Traditional views of national security have been superseded with more vague and general understanding of the concept as part of the sustainable development concept. It particularly concerns economic and environmental security. Objectives The research systematizes and theoretically generalizes the concepts of economic security and sustainable development, substantiates their mutual relation given resources are scarce. I examine social and environmental threats to sustainable development and economic security. Methods The research is based on traditional methods of research, such as analysis and synthesis, observation, induction and deduction, systems approach, graphical method. Results I pointed out key characteristics that are common to scientific approaches to economic security and sustainable development. The article indicates challenging issues from social and environmental perspectives, which threaten to sustainable and safe development. I unveil economic security threats which arise from the disparity in income, national health and effectiveness of medical treatment and preventive services to the Russian people. Conclusions and Relevance Environmental and health care issues should be addressed in order to preserve appropriate conditions for life and health of generations to come. Profit-driven business operations and pursuit of economic goals are unacceptable for the ecology of the Earth and public health. Hence, the society has to ensure sustainable social and economic development and concurrently prevent the deterioration of the social and environmental situation. The motivational mechanism, which inter alia implies financial incentives, is a crucial tool to achieve the goals.
Keywords: economic security, national security, sustainable development, national priorities, public health
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